The Indian parliament is the Republic of India’s highest legislative entity. This is a bicameral assembly consisting of India ‘s President and the two houses: Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and Lok Sabha (People’s House). Throughout his capacity as president of the legislature, the President has complete powers to call and prorogue either Parliament House or Lok Sabha to disband. Only on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and his Union Council of Ministers will the President exercise certain rights.
Like the Uk Parliament, the Indian parliament is not independent, because it can only legislate on certain subjects that the constitution has granted to it. If Parliament ‘s rules are not provided for in the Constitution, they may be deemed illegal and dismissed by India’s Supreme Court. In other terms, union parliament law is subject to the Supreme Court’s judicial review authority. Union parliament will amend the constitution but can not alter the ‘core framework’ The President can send to Parliament every properly passed bill for examination and re-passing. The control in both Parliament houses is not comparable. The Lok Sabha has been granted more powers than Rajya Sabha because of it being a famous national legislative body. The Lok Sabha is responsible to the Council of Ministers and not to Rajya Sabha.
The Indian Constitution is not based on the division of powers concept. The union parliament has constitutional authority as well as certain administrative and judicial control. The union parliament legislates on Union List, Concurrent List, and Residual List topics. The Lok Sabha constantly maintains power over the functioning of the Council of Ministers.
All elected or appointed to any House of Parliament (by the President) are referred to as Members of Parliament (MP). Parliamentarians, Lok Sabha are overwhelmingly elected by the Indian popular vote in single-member constituencies and by the parliamentarians, Rajya Sabha is chosen by proportional representation by the representatives of the state legislative assemblies. The Parliament has a approved membership of 543 in Lok Sabha and 245 in Rajya Sabha including the 12 candidates from the backgrounds in different fields of research, culture, art and history. Parliament meets in New Delhi, in Sansad Bhavan.
The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.
President of India
The head of state, the President of India, is a legislative part. Under Articles 60 and 111, it is the duty of the President to insure that the laws enacted by Parliament meet the legislative requirement and that the stipulated process is followed prior to the acceptance of the bills. The President of India is chosen by the elected representatives of the Indian Parliament and the state legislatures and serves a 5-year term
Lok Sabha (People’s House), or lower chamber, has 543 representatives. 543 Representatives are directly elected by Indian people on the basis of a compulsory adult vote covering Parliamentary constituencies in the world. Throughout 1952 and 2020, the President of India had appointed 2 additional members of the Anglo-Indian group on the recommendation of the Government of India which was repealed by the 104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019, in January 2020. Any Indian resident who is over the age of 18, regardless of gender, sex, faith or ethnicity, and who is otherwise not excluded, is entitled to vote for the Lok Sabha. The Constitution calls for the House to have the highest number of 552 representatives. This has a 5 year duration. To be qualified for membership in the Lok Sabha, a person must be an Indian citizen and must be 25 years of age or above, psychologically stable, should not be bankrupt and should not be convicted of criminal proceedings. The overall elective membership is divided among the states in such a manner that, to the degree possible, the ratio between the number of seats assigned to each State and the population of the State is the same for all states.
Powers of the Lok Sabha
I. Legislative powers: The regular bill may only become a statute when it is approved by all Legislative houses. This can be brought into either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. When the one house leaves it is transferred to the other building. This is a statute upon the President’s signature, after it has obtained the consent of both chambers.
II. Executive Powers: Article 75(3) of the Constitution states that “the council of ministers is jointly accountable to the people’s house. This is responsible for the actions of omission and arbitration before Lok Sabha. The ministers stay in power for as long as they retain majority confidence in the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha’s mainly refers to the Prime Minister.
III. Financial Powers: The bills of money will only be presented at the Lok Sabha. Such a bill is referred to the Rajya Sabha until approved by it. The Rajya Sabha will postpone a money bill passed by the Lok Sabha for a maximum time of 14 days. If Rajya Sabha refuses to approve the Money Bill and 14 days expire from the date of the Money’s presentation to the Rajya Sabha, it is considered to have been approved by both parliament houses and submitted to the head of state for his signatures.
The upper house or Rajya Sabha (Council of States) is a legislative entity not liable to abolition. Each second year, one-third of Representatives resign and are succeeded by newly elected members. Each Member is elected for a six-year period. Its representatives are partially chosen by leaders of state legislatures. The Rajya Sabha has a cumulative representation of 250. It currently has a approved membership of 245 representatives, 233 of whom are elected from States and Union Territories and 12 appointed by the Chair. The number of a State leaders relies on their community. For a individual to become a Rajya Sabha member the minimum age is 30 years.
Powers of the Rajya Sabha
I. Legislative Powers: Within the field of regular law-making the Rajya Sabha exercises comparable control with the Lok Sabha. Ordinary may be incorporated into the Rajya Sabha, however it can not become a statute unless and unless it is approved by the Rajya Sabha.
II. Financial Powers: The Rajya Sabha takes a small role in the financial domain. And through the Lok Sabha may we pass a money resolution. To their approval a money bill approved by the Lok Sabha heads to the Rajya Sabha.
III. Executive Powers: Throughout the operation of administrative control the Rajya Sabha has a restricted function. In the Lok Sabha the Council of Ministers is individually responsible. The Lok Sabha will force the ministers’ council to resign by holding a vote of no-confidence. Rajya Sabha leaders may only audit the ministers by requesting knowledge about their job. Criticizing their strategies, answering the issue and the supplemental query and withdrawing motions for adjournment.
Session of Parliament
The time the House gathers to conduct its business is called a session. The Constitution empowers the President to call each House at such times that a distance between the two sessions does not extend six months. The Senate is also to meet at least twice a year. Parliament conducts three sessions per year in India:
· Budget: January / February to May
· Monsoon session: July to September / August · Summer: November to December
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