fraudulent insurance claims

Legal actions against fraudulent insurance claims

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What is an Insurance Fraud?

The Indian Insurance Act does not contain a definition for ‘protection extortion’. Neither have particular laws associated with protection misrepresentation been illuminated in the Indian Penal Code,1860(IPC). The Indian Contract Act,1872 (ICA) likewise doesn’t have particular laws relating to protection extortion. Despite the fact that areas identified with phony or false acts can be connected in the IPC, it doesn’t prevail to discourage the commission of the extortion. Protection extortion happens when individuals misdirect an insurance agency with a specific end goal to gather cash to which they are not entitled.

The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) has on a few events taken up the International Association of Insurance Supervisors’ (IAIS) definition, “a demonstration or oversight proposed to increase exploitative or unlawful favorable position for a gathering conferring the extortion or for other related gatherings.”

The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry characterize protection misrepresentation as, “The demonstration of creating an impression known to be false and used to incite another gathering to issue an agreement or pay a claim.This demonstration must be wilful and ponder, include monetary benefit, done under falsifications and is illicit.”

Protection misrepresentation alludes to any beguiling demonstration performed with the goal to acquire a despicable installment from a safety net provider. Protection misrepresentation is submitted by people from varying backgrounds. Law requirement authorities have arraigned specialists, legal advisors, chiropractors, auto sales representatives, protection operators and individuals in places of trust. Any individual who looks to profit by protection through influencing expanded or bogus cases of misfortune or damage to can be indicted.”

Types of Insurance Fraud

The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India which is the apex body and overseeing the business of Insurance in Inda sets out these 3 broad categories of fraud –

  1. Policyholder Fraud and additionally Claims Fraud – Fraud against the organization in the buy or potentially execution of a protection item, including extortion at the season of making a claim.
  2. Middle person Fraud – Fraud sustained by a protection specialist/Corporate Agent/go-between/Third Party Administrators (TPAs) against the organization as well as policyholders.
  3. Interior Fraud – Fraud/misappropriation against the organization by its Director, Manager as well as some other officer or staff part (by whatever name called).

Cases Related Fraud

Arrangement holders may, for the most part, confer these sort of fakes :

  1. Concealing a prior condition: most individual wellbeing arrangements give a clear sitting tight period for a previous condition/ailment. The policyholder by distorting the report of a pre-arrangement wellbeing check-up, hide this reality.
  2. Manufactured records to meet terms and states of the Insurance: Youthful and Healthy individuals are a conspicuous decision for protection by the companies.Any individual with an alternate quality, for instance, a man matured, may not really confront dismissal of his application but rather might be charged more premium. For this situation, individuals endeavor to coverage or perpetual diseases.Faking handicap likewise goes under this.
  3. Copy bills of trade: Submission of produced or expanded bills is additionally extortion, particularly when no costs have been undertaken.The target of medical coverage, to cover the therapeutic costs acquired when one has sicknesses or requires surgery, is vanquished then.A protection arrangement shouldn’t be painful.
  4. Withholding data of various arrangements: It is the duty of the guaranteed to educate the various safety net providers of the current approaches whether gathering, individual to keep the making of different claims on an issue and influence a benefit to out of it
  5. Taking part in misrepresentation rings: A man may intrigue with another like an operator or specialist or suppliers to influence a false claim, for instance, to modify data at their endowment to make a claim.
  6. Coordinated mischance: A man may organize a mishap with the goal that they can call for pay for their therapeutic and healing center costs.

As the social medical coverage takes a consistent upward come, the casualties of health care coverage may be more in nature.

Current Action against misrepresentation

No misrepresentation Management strategy has been legitimately archived or executed till date by the different protection administrative specialists or the legislature.

These are the different moves which can be made with regards to protection misrepresentation and the activities are constrained to :

  1. Dismissal of cases of genuine misrepresentation – in all cases brought out in the court if the blame is discovered, the case is out and out rejected
  2. Extortion can likewise prompt cancellation of strategy in genuine misrepresentation cases, be that as it may, this does not, for the most part, occur in manhandle or misdeclaration.
  3. There are just restricted moves which can be made against the specialists because of the absence of a far-reaching legitimate structure to rebuff the same.
  4. The vast majority of the insurance agencies don’t have a guaranteeing as a piece of their divulgences or archives, about what move will be made to the customers if there should be an occurrence of misdeclaration or non-statement of material data.


Because of the mounting excess of pending cases in the legal apparatus of our state, making a legitimate move against extortion is not a typical event and misrepresentation of sums not sufficiently enormous are given up off instead of the overwhelming venture of time and vitality in seeking the same.

Regardless of the possibility that lawful cures are taken or help of the court is profited because of different reasons and the plan and procedure of the law now and then make the recuperation of the cash lost by misrepresentation are an uncommon event.

Legitimate Provisions under Indian Penal Code,1860

The arrangements which can be pertinent in such cases are –

Section 205. False personation for reason for action or continuing in suit or indictment.— Whoever dishonestly personates another, and in such expected character puts forth any confirmation or expression, or admits judgment, or makes any procedure be issued or moves toward becoming safeguard or security, or does some other demonstration in any suit or criminal prosecu­tion, might be rebuffed with detainment of either depiction for a term which may stretch out to three years, or with fine, or with both.

Section 420. Swindling and insincerely initiating conveyance of property.— Whoever cheats and in this manner unscrupulously actuates the individual de­ceived to convey any property to any individual, or to make, modify or wreck the entire or any piece of a profitable security, or anything which is marked or fixed, and which is fit for being changed over into an important security, might be rebuffed with detainment of either depiction for a term which may reach out to seven years, and should likewise be at risk to fine.

Section 464 Making a false report. — 341 [A individual is said to make a false archive or false electronic record—First — Who deceptively or fradulently—

(a) makes, signs, seals or executes a report or part of a record;

(b) makes or transmits any electronic record or part of any electronic record;

(c) attaches any 342 [electronic signature] on any electronic record;

(d) makes any check indicating the execution of an archive or the credibility of the342 [electronic signature],with the goal of making it be trusted that such report or part of record, electronic record or 342 [electronic signature] was made, marked, fixed, executed, transmitted or attached by or by the specialist of a man by whom or by whose expert he realizes that it was not made, marked, fixed, executed or fastened;

Or, then again Secondly — Who, without legal specialist, untrustworthily or fraudu­lently, by cancelation or something else, changes an archive or an electronic record in any material part thereof, after it has been made, executed or joined with 342 [electronic signature] either independent from anyone else or by some other individual, regardless of whether such individual be living or dead at the season of such adjustment; or

Thirdly — Who insincerely or falsely makes any individual sign, seal, execute or change an archive or an electronic record or to attach his 342 [electronic signature] on any electronic record realizing that such individual by reason of unsoundness of brain or inebriation can’t, or that by reason of misleading honed upon him, he doesn’t know the substance of the report or electronic record or the idea of the alteration.]

Section 405. Criminal break of put stock in.— Whoever, being in any way endowed with property, or with any territory over property, unscrupulously misuses or changes over to his own particular utilize that property, or deceptively uses or discards that property disregarding any bearing of law recommending the mode in which such trust is to be released, or of any lawful contract, express or suggested, which he has influenced touching the release of such to trust, or wilfully endures some other individual so to do, perpetrates “criminal rupture of trust”.

As observed above from the extensive and expand clarifications/definitions every one of these segments under this law can be utilized to abuse if there should arise an occurrence of protection misrepresentation however because of the time and cost included, parties for the most part hold back.

Legitimate Remedies under The Indian Contract Act, 1872

  1. Misrepresentation within the meaning of Section 18of the ICA
  2. The agreement of protection is likewise void in according to Section 10 read with Section 14(4) and Section 18 of the ICA by and large in instances of extortion.
  3. According to Section 20of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the assention is void where the two gatherings are under slip-up as to matter of truth. A few components are basic for protection cover.

Different measures which can be taken

Steps, for example, having a far-reaching misrepresentation and manhandle administration arrangement which covers sorts of extortion and mishandles close by with approaches, strategies, and controls, organization activity being reported and executing a survey instrument ought to be taken by insurance agencies additionally so they are likewise in a position to make a lawful move.

Sharing of knowledge and data should be more prevalent with the victims of fraudulent insurance claims, this data should include fraud patterns and case studies, fraud customer list and intermediaries, fraudulent providers and investigators etc.

Most importantly awareness should be brought about the due legal process to be followed before reporting a case.Reporting to external bodies such as Medical Council of India, IRDA, and corporate Human Resources can also be tried.


There has been a growing instance of fraudulent insurance claims and the Supreme Court also in January 2017 has stressed on the need for framing guidelines with the suggestions of the states and the insurance companies to rule out such cases. In some cases claims are also filed wrongly under different acts.It is important to evolve an efficient legal framework and take recourse to the existing one as well to prevent such plunder of the money of the public.


  2. Cases on State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  3. Insurance institute of India
  4. Ipleaders

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